Some facts about the human cremation furnaces of DFW Europe, cremation equipment manufacturer. There are several cremation ovens: there is the “hot start human cremator” DFW 6000 and the “cold start human cremator” DFW 4000 that DFW Europe manufactures. To complete the general information about human cremation furnaces, there are also the “hybrid electrical cremation furnace” and a “fall-through cremation furnace” which are not jet manufactured by DFW Europe. A fall-through human cremator is not used in the Netherlands since this type of cremation furnaces are made for a continuous cremation process of a crematorium. And take into count this is prohibited by the Dutch law in The Netherlands, but is allowed in Germany.
To answer this question it is useful to know how much. And how many cremations a crematorium performs on an annual basis. Nowadays, in the Netherlands, the crematory and stray field activity decision applies to every crematorium. Ask your local legislation for more details. This includes the air regulations and soil regulations that crematoria must meet. A distinction is made between human crematoria and animal crematoria. There are different legislations so that the same rules do not apply on local environmental issues.
A cremation of a deceased person with funeral coffin takes place in a cremation oven. The cremation furnace is an incinerator that has been specially developed to burn the human body with a coffin. Before a cremation can take place, the environmental chamber is preheated to a temperature of approximately 820 degrees Celsius. This is mandatory for a cremation in the Netherlands.
If we look at other European countries, take England or Belgium as example. Then it is mandatory to preheat both the environmental chamber and the combustion chamber at cremation to 820 degrees Celsius. Preheating the environmental chamber will usually only be necessary for the first cremation of the day. After the first cremation, the crematorium oven remains sufficiently heated and allows the next cremation process to take place.
After the coffin has been entered and the funeral coffin flames, the temperature in the combustion camber will increase during the process to approximately 1100 degrees Celsius. The cremation process is fully automated nowadays. Special cremation software has been developed to control this process. As a computer keeps tracks of what is happening in the cremation oven and can, if necessary, ensure that the right temperatures that achieve an optimal cremation process.
Despite the automation of the cremation process, there is always a crematorium employee at seight when a cremation takes place. This crematorium employee is a also called “ovenist” and or “furnace operator”. The furnace operator ensures that the coffin (possible with the help of relatives) is correctly insured into the human cremation furnace.
In order to ensure that no ash remains can be exchanged after a cremation, an identification stone with the crematorium’s unique cremation number is placed on the coffin. Before the coffin is inserted into the cremation oven. The oven operator monitors the cremation process and ensures that the remains of the deceased are placed in the right place. At the end of the cremation, the ash is swept cleanly through the shaft hole, after opening the shaft flap, in an ash pan.
As result, the furnace operator prevents ash removal from taking place. The oven must first thoroughly be wiped, cleaning the oven. After this is done, the combustion chamber is ready to carry out the next cremation. A cremation takes about 75 to 90 minutes, which can sometimes be shorter or longer. Depending on the weight of the deceased, the cremation of a large person will last longer than that of a thin person. A cremation furnace has on average a technical incineration capacity of approximately 100 Kilograms per hour / organic materials. After cremation on average there is a 2,5 till 3 Kg of cremains.
In special cases, it wants to prevent that the deceased can not be entered because the funeral coffin is too wide for the oven. But with the latest cremators from DFW Europe, these have standard a wider entry door then the older predecessors. With the new DFW Europe human cremation furnaces, this is 130 centimetres wide and 90 centimetres high.
Sometimes people wonder, why there is no smoke from a chimney of the crematorium? This has to do with the cremation filter technology that is currently behind the oven. This filter technique is large. For example, the furnace itself has an environmental chamber and the cremation control system of the cremation furnace is written in such a way that the combustion is completely smoke-free and odourless, so that filtered clean air is ensured.
Nowadays, a modern crematorium is equipped with a mandatory cremation filter system, which means that even the particulate matter is completely absorbed. These cremation filters ensure that each crematorium meets the strict environmental requirements set in the activities decision for crematoriums and stray fields, is controlled in the Netherlands by the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment. So ask your local legislation for environmental rules.
A DFW Europe cremation furnace is heated with natural gasses or biodiesel and or others. The choice between different fuels depends on the choice of the crematorium. In the Netherlands, the choice will often be natural gas. But for example in Scandinavian countries, we opt for biodiesel. After the cremation has taken place, the ashes or so called remains and any other “cremains” are collected.
Think of certain types of metals such as screws and brackets that are processed on or in the coffin and not unimportant the prostheses that are inside people and that do not burn. The ovenist / operator will sweep the remains from the primary combustion chamber into an ash pan and then bring the ash remains to an ash processing room. Here the remains or “cremains” will first cool in an remains refrigerator.
Afterwards, the ash remains will be treated on an ash processing table in order to first remove all large and small non-ferrous metals with a strong magnet. Afterwards, the ash remains will be placed in a cremulator, resulting in a single homogeneous ash mass, so that it is finally poured into an temporary urn and can be stored. And choices can be made for further purpose of the deceased remains.
A cross-section of a DFW Europe cremation furnace:
|1 Arc 1|
2 Arc 2
3 Arc 3
4 Arc 4
5 Combustion chamber floor
6 Fuel / Gass inlet
8 Floor post-combustion chamber (below)
9 Sub-floor after combustion chamber
10 Moulded parts door
11 Door list
12 Wall cremation room
14 Moulded chimneys